IMMUNE SYSTEM MODULATORS MODULATE THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Arthritis drugs may reduce COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. “Some arthritis drugs may reduce the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines, according to the Arthritis Foundation, which also offers advice on booster shots. Research is limited, but evidence suggests that disease-modifying drugs used for arthritis may reduce the response of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna, according to the foundation. . . . No research on the one shot Johnson & Johnson vaccine in people taking immunosuppressive medications has been reported, according to the Arthritis Foundation.”

Plus: “Karp added that it’s still unclear how much protection a third or fourth booster provides to immunocompromised patients, such as those with cancer, organ transplants and those taking immunosuppressive medications.”

I have a friend with MS who had undetectable antibody levels despite having had covid and two shots. On the other hand, when she had covid, which predated the vaccinations, she didn’t get all that sick. That’s probably because immunity has more to do with T- and B-cell responses, which I suspect people study less because it’s harder than studying antibody levels.