THE INNOVATION COSTS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN CIVILIZATION. “We need to innovate just to run in place. We need a constant stream of innovations in energy, materials, automation, and other areas just to maintain a constant standard of living. Some substantial fraction of all innovation goes toward just maintaining our current standard of living and quality of life. My guess is the fraction of all innovation toward maintaining our position is actually rising. Whether that is true is a a very important question.”
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