Because of Chinese political and economic pressure, Taiwan is using a lot of locally manufactured components to upgrade its F-16s. But some tech can only be obtained from the United States and most of the requested items have been made available along with technical assistance from the American manufacturers. The Taiwanese upgrade center will turn out 24 upgraded aircraft a year.

Meanwhile Taiwan has completed upgrades of its own locally manufactured jet fighter. In 2011 Taiwan rolled out the first of its upgraded IDF (F-CK) jet fighters. The improvements include better electronics, largely from the United States and the ability to carry four, instead of two, radar guided air-to-air missiles.

Beijing’s belligerence in the South China Sea and East China Sea has led South Korea, Japan, Taiwan (Republic of China) and the U.S. to modernize their forces and/or change their military force posture. These nations are technically adversaries. Vietnam is a pugnacious adversary. Singapore, Indonesia and Australia are also “adjusting” their defense policies.